What is Applied Behavior Analysis?
Before understanding the 7 dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis, one must first understand what Applied Behavior Analysis is.
Applied Behavior Analysis is a scientific approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behaviors and for developing a technology of behavior change that is practical and applicable (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007).
In simpler terms, one of the main purposes of Applied Behavior Analysis is to target functionally appropriate behavior that can increase an individual’s quality of life. This is done by teaching appropriate, functional behaviors and skills as well as by reducing problematic ones.
What are the 7 Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis?
While Applied Behavior Analysis is based on scientific methods, it is founded on 7 core dimensions, which were first outlined by Baer, Wolf and Risley in 1968 in the first edition of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA).
All Applied Behavior Analytic interventions fall within or are defined by these 7 core dimensions, which are outlined below. As a whole, these 7 dimensions make up the framework of proper Applied Behavior Analytic interventions and they support techniques used during therapy sessions.
- G- Generality (AKA generalization) – A behavioral change may be said to have generality if it proves durable over time, if it appears in a wide variety of possible environments, and/or if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors (Baer, Wolf, Risley, 1968). In other words, a behavior demonstrates generality when the taught behavior carries over into other contexts than just the training environment. We want these taught behaviors to be used in multiple settings, across multiple people, and to continue to be used in the future.
- E- Effective – interventions are effective when they improve a behavior in a practical matter. If the application of behavioral techniques does not produce large enough effects for practical value, then the application has failed (Baer, Wolf, Risley, 1968). An intervention is effective when it changes the behavior it seeks to change.
- T- Technological – Procedures are described clearly and concisely so that others may implement the procedures accurately. Think of this dimension like a recipe – all steps are written in detail to get the desired result. You would not be able to follow a recipe if it did not list the specific ingredients and measurements. Same thing goes for Applied Behavior Analytic interventions!
- A- Applied – A behavior change is applied when it enhances and improves the everyday life of a learner, and those who are closest to a learner (e.g., parents, siblings, peers), by improving a socially significant behavior.
- C- Conceptually Systematic – Interventions are consistent with the principles demonstrated in the literature and the research. It is important that practitioners continue to use research-based techniques, and avoid using any shortcuts in our teaching methods.
- A- Analytical – Using data to make informed decisions. The practitioner is able to show that whenever he/she applies a certain variable, the behavior is produced, and whenever he/she removes this variable, the behavior is lost (Baer, Wolf, Risley, 1968).
- B- Behavioral – The behavior chosen must also be observable and measurable. By defining a behavior that makes it easily observable and measurable, we are able to study it for proof of improvement, as well as lack of improvement. By defining a behavior, practitioners are able to collect data and show change over time.
Effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analysis
Now that you are familiar with the 7 dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis, you may be wondering if they are an effective treatment for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Applied Behavior Analysis has produced remarkably powerful interventions in fields such as education, developmental disabilities and autism, clinical psychology, behavioral medicine, organizational behavior management, and a host of other fields and populations (Slocum, et al., 2014).
Using the 7 dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis ensures that the interventions are data driven and supported by research, that the interventions are effective and socially significant to the individuals, and that interventions are closely monitored to ensure consistent progress or to make modifications to interventions if and when necessary. Because these 7 dimensions make up the framework for Applied Behavior Analysis, research has demonstrated their effectiveness and the research continues to grow each day.
Applied Behavior Analysis is evidence-based, which means that this method of teaching is based on empirical evidence. Research and studies have been conducted and found that Applied Behavior Analysis is effective in treating individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This emphasizes the research-supported selection of treatments and data-driven decisions about treatment progress that have always been at the core of Applied Behavior Analysis. As a field, Applied Behavior Analysis continues to evolve and change as new research and technology become available.
- Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.
- Cooper, J., Heron, T., & Heward, W. (2007) Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
- Slocum, T., Detrich, R., Wilczynski, S., Spencer, T., Lewis, T., and Wolfe, K. (2014). The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(1), 41-56.
For more information about ABA therapy or how we can help your child, contact Attentive Behavior Care today.